Boring always involves the enlarging of an existing hole, which may have been made by a drill or may be the result of a core in a casting. An equally important, and concurrent, purpose of boring may be to make the hole concentric with the axis of rotation of the workpiece and thus correct any eccentricity that may have resulted from the drill's having drifted off the center line. Concentricity is an important attribute of bored holes. When boring is done in a lathe, the work usually is held in a chuck or on a face plate. Holes may be bored straight, tapered, or to irregular contours. Boring is essentially internal turning while feeding the tool parallel to the rotation axis of the workpiece.
Facing is the producing of a flat surface as the result of a tool's being fed across the end of the rotating workpiece. Unless the work is held on a mandrel, if both ends of the work are to be faced, it must be turned end for end after the first end is completed and the facing operation repeated. The cutting speed should be determined from the largest diameter of the surface to be faced. Facing may be done either from the outside inward or from the center outward. In either case, the point of the tool must be set exactly at the height of the center of rotation. because the cutting force tends to push the tool away from the work, it is usually desirable to clamp the carriage to the lathe bed during each facing cut to prevent it from moving slightly and thus producing a surface that is not flat. In the facing of casting or other materials that have a hard surface, the depth of the first cut should be sufficient to penetrate the hard material to avoid excessive tool wear.
Parting is the operation by which one section of a workpiece is severed from the remainder by means of a cutoff tool. Because cutting tools are quite thin and must have considerable overhang, this process is less accurate and more difficult. The tool should be set exactly at the height of the axis of rotation, be kept sharp, have proper clearance angles, and be fed into the workpiece at a proper and uniform feed rate.